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Write a custom diagram

This tutorial will try to extend a Mermaid.js-style pie chart diagram to Pintora.

pie chart example


You can check out the code for this tutorial on github.


Before implementing custom diagrams, please learn about Pintora's technical brief.

Basic syntax and DiagramIR

title Bag of Fruits
"apple" 5
"peach" 6
"banana" 2
  1. the diagram description starts with pie
  2. the content after title will be the title of the diagram
  3. each row satisfies the "<name>" <number> format, where number needs to be a positive number

The following is the definition of the logical diagram data PieChartDiagramIR.

export type Item = {
name: string
count: number

export type PieChartDiagramIR = {
title: string
items: Item[]
sum: number

First glance at what is needed to register a diagram type

Based on syntax rule 1 above, we can derive the conditions for determining a diagram as a pieChart, described using the regular expression /^\s*pie\s*\n/. pintora will check the input text using the pattern it provides according to the order in which the diagrams are registered, using the first matching diagram for subsequent processing.

parser and artist we have not yet implemented, and will describe them in the following.

import { IDiagram } from '@pintora/core'
import pintora from '@pintora/standalone'
import { PieChartDiagramIR } from './type'
import parser from './parser'
import artist from './artist'

const pieChartDiagram: IDiagram<PieChartDiagramIR> = {
pattern: /^\s*pie\s*\n/,

pintora.diagramRegistry.registerDiagram('pieChart', pieChartDiagram)

The parser

Since the syntax is really simple, we can quickly implement a parser using regular expressions based on line content matching:

  • TITLE_REGEXP corresponds to syntax rule 2
  • RECORD_REGEXP corresponds to syntax rule 3
    • Currently we only accepts the contents of double quotes as item names
    • Accepts simple positive numbers with decimal points, does not support scientific notation
import { IDiagramParser } from '@pintora/core'
import { PieChartDiagramIR, Item } from './type'

const TITLE_REGEXP = /^title\s*(.*)/
const RECORD_REGEXP = /^\"(.*)\"\s+([\d\.]+)/

const parser: IDiagramParser<PieChartDiagramIR> = {
parse(input: string) {
const ir: PieChartDiagramIR = {
title: '',
items: [],
sum: 0,

const lines = input.split('\n')
for (const line of lines) {
let match
const trimmedLine = line.trim()
if (match = TITLE_REGEXP.exec(trimmedLine)) {
ir.title = match[1]
if (match = RECORD_REGEXP.exec(trimmedLine)) {
const item: Item = {
name: match[1],
count: parseFloat(match[2]),

ir.sum = ir.items.reduce((sum, item) => sum + item.count, 0)

return ir

export default parser

Advanced: Using nearley.js to generate parser

Pintora's built-in diagrams use nearley.js as parser generator, and has some common grammar rules (such as the @param and @config directives), we will write another tutorial about it in the future.

The latest version of pintora-diagram-pie-chart uses a forked version of nearley to generate the parser.

The artist

The amount of code for artist is usually the largest part of the diagram implementation, so we will break it down step by step.

Basic structure

The artist is responsible for converting the parser-generated diagramIR into the visual representation format GraphicsIR, so the start and end of the implementation are shown below.

import { IDiagramArtist, GraphicsIR, Group } from '@pintora/core'
import pintora, { IFont } from '@pintora/standalone'
import { PieChartDiagramIR } from './type'

const pieChartArtist: IDiagramArtist<PieChartDiagramIR> = {
draw(diagramIR) {
const rootMark: Group = {
type: 'group',
children: [],

// ... TBD

const graphicsIR: GraphicsIR = {
mark: rootMark,
return graphicsIR

export default pieChartArtist

Also declare the following as the base diagram configuration that will be used when drawing the elements.

const PIE_COLORS = [

const LEGEND_FONT: IFont = {
fontSize: 14,
fontFamily: 'sans-serif',
fontWeight: 'normal',

type PieConf = {
diagarmPadding: number
diagramBackgroundColor: string
circleRadius: number

const conf: PieConf = {
diagarmPadding: 10,
diagramBackgroundColor: '#F9F9F9',
circleRadius: 150,

Draw the title

  • The title text is centered horizontally based on itself (achieved with textAlign: 'center'), and x is the same as the center of the pie chart that will be drawn later
  • The presence of the title affects the vertical position of the pie chart, and we use circleStartY to mark the starting position of the pie chart in the vertical direction
    const radius = conf.circleRadius

let circleStartY = conf.diagarmPadding
let circleStartX = conf.diagarmPadding

if (diagramIR.title) {
const titleMark = pintora.util.makeMark('text', {
text: diagramIR.title,
x: circleStartX + radius,
y: circleStartY + 10,
fill: 'black',
fontSize: 16,
fontWeight: 'bold',
textBaseline: 'middle',
textAlign: 'center',
circleStartY += 30

Draw each item

This part is tedious with details, it can be summarized as: each item includes the sectors in the pie chart as well as the legend on the right, so corresponding to each part, it is necessary to:

  • Plot the sector with an angle proportional to the number of items in the overall sum, denoted hereafter by sectorMark. It is a Path type marker, and the shape is described by path. For the syntax of paths, see the document Paths - SVG: Scalable Vector Graphics | MDN.
  • pLabel is a text type label that displays the percentage associated with the area in the sector.
  • legendSquare is a small square of the same color as the sector, displayed in the legend area to the right of the pie chart.
  • legendLabel appears to the right of legendSquare and shows the name of the legend.
  • When calculating the layout, pintora.util.calculateTextDimensions(text, fontConfig) is used to calculate the size of the visual area of the text, which is used to determine the placement of subsequent elements.

After generating all the tags needed for a single item, group them into itemGroup and add itemGroup to rootMark.children. The Group can be nested appropriately according to your needs. A reasonable grouping is convenient for debugging on the one hand, and on the other hand you can use some special fields, such as group.matrix to do geometric transformations on the whole group.

Notice the class attribute on itemGroup, which will be carried in the SVG output and is also a little trick to facilitate debugging.

    diagramIR.items.forEach((item, i) => {
const fillColor = PIE_COLORS[i % PIE_COLORS.length]
const rad = (item.count / diagramIR.sum) * RAD_OF_A_CIRCLE
const destRad = currentRad + rad
const arcStartX = radius * Math.cos(currentRad)
const arcStartY = radius * Math.sin(currentRad)
const arcEndRel = {
x: radius * Math.cos(destRad),
y: radius * Math.sin(destRad),
const largeArcFlag = rad > Math.PI ? 1 : 0
const sectorMark = pintora.util.makeMark('path', {
path: [
['M', circleCenter.x, circleCenter.y],
['l', arcStartX, arcStartY],
arcEndRel.x - arcStartX,
arcEndRel.y - arcStartY,
stroke: '#333',
fill: fillColor,

// draw percentage label
const pLabelX =
circleCenter.x + (radius * Math.cos(currentRad + rad / 2)) / 2
const pLabelY =
circleCenter.y + (radius * Math.sin(currentRad + rad / 2)) / 2
const pLabel = pintora.util.makeMark('text', {
text: `${Math.floor((100 * item.count) / diagramIR.sum)}%`,
fill: 'black',
x: pLabelX,
y: pLabelY,
textAlign: 'center',
textBaseline: 'middle',

// draw legend
const legendSquare = pintora.util.makeMark('rect', {
fill: fillColor,
x: legendStart.x,
y: currentLabelY,

const labelX = legendStart.x + LEGEND_SQUARE_SIZE + 5
const legendLabel = pintora.util.makeMark('text', {
fill: 'black',
x: labelX,
y: currentLabelY,
...(LEGEND_FONT as any),
textBaseline: 'top',

currentRad = destRad
currentLabelY += LEGEND_SQUARE_SIZE + 5

const labelDims = pintora.util.calculateTextDimensions(,
maxLabelRight = Math.max(maxLabelRight, labelX + labelDims.width)

const itemGroup: Group = {
type: 'group',
children: [sectorMark, pLabel, legendSquare, legendLabel],
class: 'pie__item'

Calculate the final size of the diagram

At this point, the final graphicsIR is complete with all the required data.

    const diagramWidth = maxLabelRight + conf.diagarmPadding

const graphicsIR: GraphicsIR = {
mark: rootMark,
width: diagramWidth,
height: circleStartY + 2 * radius + conf.diagarmPadding,
bgColor: conf.diagramBackgroundColor,

Next step: Adding config to the diagram

For basic concepts of config, see the Configuration documentation.

With Typescript's type enhancement feature, you can extend the interface PintoraConfig in the @pintora/core package to add some pie-chart specific configs, and can be saved and accessed by the key pie.

declare module '@pintora/core' {
interface PintoraConfig {
pie: {
diagarmPadding: number
diagramBackgroundColor: string
circleRadius: number
pieColors: string[]

Set the default config for your diagram

Before registering the diagram, use pintora.setConfig({ pie: { ...defaultConfig } }) to set the default config for pie.

import pintora, { IFont, PintoraConfig } from '@pintora/standalone'
import { PieChartDiagramIR } from './type'

-const PIE_COLORS = [
@@ -19,21 +19,25 @@ const LEGEND_FONT: IFont = {
fontWeight: 'normal',

-type PieConf = {
- diagarmPadding: number
- diagramBackgroundColor: string
- circleRadius: number
+type PieConf = PintoraConfig['pie']

-const conf: PieConf = {
+// default config
+const defaultConfig: PieConf = {
diagarmPadding: 10,
diagramBackgroundColor: '#F9F9F9',
circleRadius: 150,

+ pie: { ...defaultConfig },

Some changes to the artist

-  draw(diagramIR) {
+ draw(diagramIR, config) {
+ const conf: PieConf = Object.assign({}, pintora.getConfig().pie, config || {})
const rootMark: Group = {
type: 'group',
children: [],
@@ -74,7 +78,7 @@ const pieChartArtist: IDiagramArtist<PieChartDiagramIR> = {
let currentLabelY = legendStart.y
let maxLabelRight = 0
diagramIR.items.forEach((item, i) => {
- const fillColor = PIE_COLORS[i % PIE_COLORS.length]
+ const fillColor = conf.pieColors[i % conf.pieColors.length]

Testing the diagram

We can use any bundler to package the source code of this diagram as dist/pintora-diagram-pie-chart.umd.js, which can be tested in an html page to see the effect.

The pintora-diagram-pie-chart.umd.js will register the custom diagram to pintora, please make sure that global pintora object is loaded before the custom diagram script loads.

<div className="pintora">
title Bag of Fruits
"apple" 5
"peach" 6
"banana" 2

<script src=""></script>
<script src="./dist/pintora-diagram-pie-chart.umd.js"></script>

Show time

You can check the online dev demo on stackblitz.